Appendiceal Cancer: Facts, Stages, Symptoms, Treatment

Facts About Appendiceal Cancer:

Appendiceal is the term, which is used for anything related to appendix. Appendix is the tube that is connected to cecum. Cecum is the first part of our intestine. Appendix is a part of gastrointestinal tract. Appendiceal cancer is the rare tumors with malignant potential. Malignant means it can spread to other parts of the body. Appendix cancer occurs when the cells in the appendix multiply without control.


Removal and Survival:

The cells in the tumor form a growth of tissue, which is known as tumor. Malignant tumors are those which can spread to other parts of the body and benign means the tumor, which will not spread to other parts of the body. This tumor can be Malignant or benign. If the tumor is less than 2.5 cm then it can be removed and patient survives for longer time. If the tumor is greater than 2.5cm then the treatment required to cure this is intense and the patient may have less survival rate.

Types Of Appendiceal Cancer:

1. Carcinoid Tumor: -It is a slow growing tumor, which is undetectable until it is spread to other organs. It usually starts from gastrointestinal tract or lungs. Not only in this but they can also occur in pancreas or men’s testicles, women’s Ovaries.
2. Appendiceal Mucoceles: -In this appendix wall attains swelling and this selling is filling with mucous. This swelling is termed as mucoceles. This are of two types
a. Mucinous cystadenomas
 b. Mucinous cystadenocarcinomas

Former is benign type of appendix cancer which do not spread to other body parts and later is malignant type which spreads to other parts of the body.


     3.Colonical type Adenocarcinoma: –It usually occurs in the base of the appendix. This type of cancer goes unnoticed and is later detected during appendicitis operation.

  1. Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma:- It is one of the rarest and aggressive type of cancer. It is very difficult to treat this type of cancer. It usually occurs in appendix or colon and cause appendicitis when developed in appendix. It got it name because of its cells under microscope looks like signet ring adenocarcinoma.

5.Paraganglioma: –It gets developed in the cells from parganglia and is benign type, which does not spread, and other parts. It is curable with the help of surgery.

Stages Of Appendiceal Cancer:

Doctors measures this in TNM rule which is as follows

T denotes the size and location of the tumor and its categories are listed below.

  1. TX: Primary Tumor cannot be evaluated
  2. T0: There are no trace of the cancer in the appendix
  3. T1: The tumor is <= 2cm
  4. T1a: Tumor is <= 1cm
  5. T1b: Tumor ranges between 1-2cm
  6. T2: tumor ranges between 2-4cm
  7. T3: Larger than 4cm
  8. T4: It invades in the abdominal wall.


N Stands for lymph nodes, Lymph are tiny bean shaped organs present through the body and is categorized as below

  1. NX: Lymph cannot be evaluated
  2. N0: Cancer has not spread to the regional lymph nodes
  3. N1 : Cancer has spread to the regional lymph nodes

M stands for Metastatis

  1. M0: Cancer has not spread o other parts of the body
  2. M1: Cancer has spread o other parts of the body

Symptoms of Appendiceal Cancer:

There can be any below symptoms for appendix cancer. They are following

  1. Discomfort in lower right part of abdominal area
  2. Bloating
  3. An Inflation in abdomen
  4. Reflux
  5. Lack of appetite
  6. Shortness of breathe
  7. Problems in digesting your food
  8. Constipation
  9. Diarrhea
  10. Changes in bowel Moment
  11. Infertility
  12. Increased waist line

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Risk factors and causes

Causes for the appendix cancer are still unknown and no risk factor is determined till now. Only age can be the risk factor. And it is very rare in children


Diagnosis can be done through following tests

  1. Biopsy
  2. Computed Tomography
  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  4. Ultrasound
  5. Radionuclide Scanning

Appendiceal Cancer Treatments:

Treatments include the following

  1. Appendectomy: –In this the tumor is removed if the tumor is size is less than 1.5cm.
  2. Hemi colectomy: – This type of surgery is done when the tumor is larger than 2cm. In this colon a part near the appendix is removed. IN this large part of the intestine is removed.
  3. Debulking Surgery: – In this bulk amount of tumor is removed. This treatment is followed by chemotherapy sometimes to remove other cancer-infected cells in the body.
  4. Removal of peritoneum: -This is required for the intensely grown cancer. This treatment includes removal of peritoneum to remove as much as cancer possible from the body.
  5. Chemotherapy: -In this cancer is treated with usage of drugs.

Any disease diagnosed at an early stage is easy to treat and cure whereas diseases, which are diagnosed late, are difficult to treat and save the patient.


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